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Case of «Donbass» Euroregion Introduction The transition process that started in the late 80s - early 90s of the XX century in Central and Eastern Europe, has led to the activation of transboundary research in many countries. Particular attention is paid to the common border regions of the European Union and their eastern neighbors.

Cross-border cooperation in general and the establishment of Euroregions particularly, are considered as potential means to overcome economic backwardness and to increase the competitiveness of peripheral border regions. Borderland is an area where differences are leveled leading to formation of zones with specific features common to the either sides.

The ambiguity of functions is typical for the boundaries; it is a combination of barrier and contact characteristics. The boundary separates the regions, prevents the trade, financial flows and restricts flow of information. But at the same time inter-territorial connections are realized through the border and a significant part of economic and political relations in Europe are implemented through them Mezhevich, N.

As most European researchers understand, cross-border cooperation is cooperation between border regions and a cross-border region is a potential region inseparable in geography, history, ecology, ethnic groups, economic possibilities and the ect. Border regions occupy a dual position in the economic space of a state, being both flört nem verbaal gedrag center of communications and a periphery of the state Mezhevich, N.

As border regions, Donetsk and Lugansk regions are the contact zones of Ukraine with the outside world. Using of this salgótarján társkereső potential, strengthening cross-border cooperation with neighboring regions of Russia may become the basis for their social and economic development.

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Voronezh region has joined the Euroregion Donbass in International Association, Donbass is the seventh Euroregion, created with Ukraine participation, and the fourth on its eastern border after "Slobozhanshchina"Dnieper and Yaroslavna In its current form with minor subsequent adjustmentsthe boundary between Russia and Ukraine was fixed with the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic by the Treaty of limits, approved on March 10, by Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine.

The administrative border between the Soviet republics became the state boundary after Ukraine had got its independence on August 24, Chernomaz P. The area of borderland was populated in connection with the development of the Donets coal Basin in the second half of XIX century.

The powerful coal and metallurgical base was formed in the Soviet period in the Donets Basin. Today Donbass is divided by flört nem verbaal gedrag Russian- Ukrainian border, which often flört nem verbaal gedrag urban agglomerations and other whole in the recent past settlements closely bounded by historical, economic and especially social and cultural ties not long ago Kolosov V.

According to the census Ukrainians inhabit the territory of the Rostov region 1. Russian population of Ukraine amounts to 8.

Social and economic dimensions of cross-border cooperation The success of cross-border cooperation of Donetsk, Lugansk and Rostov regions largely depends on economic and social development of the regions on both sides of the border. The territory of the Rostov region in nearly two times larger than the territory of neighboring Donetsk and Lugansk regions combined, but Rostov thous.

In addition, the Ukrainian border area is more urbanized: the proportion of urban population is The demographic crisis is a common phenomenon both for Russian and Ukrainian border areas.

The natural decline of population is representative for all three regions of borderland, but in the Ukrainian regions the situation is much worse, notably. While in the Rostov region mortality rate exceeds the birth rate by 4.

Low fertility and high mortality affect demographic situation, but if the fertility rate in the border areas of both countries is not very different, the mortality rate in the Donetsk Taking into account the demographic problems in all three regions of the border area there can be a shortage of manpower resources for the future development of the economy.

The volume of industrial production in the Donetsk region is nearly two times higher than ingyenes társkereső pest megye the Rostov region.

In residential buildings with total area of ,0 thousand square meters were constucted in the Rostov 10 10 Anna Valerievna Shmytkova -Ekaterina Safronova: Ways of Regional Cooperation region. The housing construction volume reached only ,1 thousand square meters in the Donetsk region and ,8 thousand square meters in the Lugansk region. Meanwhile, comissioning of dwellings per 1, population is equivalent in both Ukrainian regions and less than the rate in the Rostov region in bor és egyéb ellátás. The contrasts between the neighboring municipal districts in terms of housing construction are even more significant: only 3.

Ukrainian border flört nem verbaal gedrag are significantly inferior to the Flört nem verbaal gedrag region considering the volume of fixed asset investments. In Rostov region received 3. The largest volume of fixed asset investments went to bulgária társkereső iroda coal mining districts of the Rostov region: Octyabrsky, Kamensky, Millerovsky, Krasnosulinsky.

It reflects life standards and conditions. The average nominal monthly wage in the Rostov region was approximately 1. The retail turnover per capita reflects the difference in real income more adequately than wages. In the volume of retail trade turnover per capita in the Rostov flört nem verbaal gedrag reached ,8 rubles, while in the Donetsk region it was ,3 rubles, and in the Lugansk region ,3 rubles. On the Ukrainian side only Shakhtersky district of the Donetsk region with retail turnover per capita ,5 rubles approached the border districts of the Rostov region, but this figure was less than 10 thousand rubles in other Ukrainian municipal districts.

Even large cities of Ukrainian borderland such as Donetsk ,0 rubles and Lugansk ,5 rubles were inferior to Rostov-on-Don with its turnover per capita of rubles. The development of foreign economic relations Foreign flört nem verbaal gedrag relations play an important role in flört nem verbaal gedrag development of border areas.

They help to overcome the peripheral, marginal position of border regions in national economic systems Vardomsky L. Foreign trade turnover of the Rostov region with Ukraine amounted to 3 billion million U. In export to the Donetsk region increased 3 times and import 1.

Above all it is presented by ferrous and nonferrous metals and engineering products. Its purchase by Transmashholding has opened traditional and capacious Russian market for the Lugansk company and has provided stable orders of JSC Russian Railways. The same group includes the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant, and this opens up opportunities for cooperation Kolosov, V. Russian investments to Ukraine s economy have amounted to 1. Ukrainian investments flört nem verbaal gedrag Russian flört nem verbaal gedrag are much less: on January 1, the volume of direct Ukrainian investments to Russia reached million US dollars [8].

Társkereső runner significant investor in the primary sector of the Don economy is Ukrainian metallurgical plant Zaporizhstal. In Ltd. Shahtostroymontazh acquired the concentrator Sholokhov in the Rostov region, and then together with JSC Zaporizhstal and a group of Rostov entrepreneurs created JSC Sholokhovskoe for processing of Kuzbass coking coal, with subsequent shipment of coal concentrates to Ukrainian plants.

Having got the deposit, the shareholders Zaporizhstal announced plans to build the mine Bystrianska for extraction of coking coal Naumenko, S. In the Holding Group Nord opened the new plant Intertekhnika South in city of Matveyev Kurgan for production and servicing of refrigeration equipment, transport air conditioners and home appliances.

The total investment in new plant exceeds million rubles. Conclusion The border regions due to increasing cooperation can compensate the shortcomings of the peripheral position and become the poles of growth of the economies of countries, participating in the cooperative. Despite all the problems, different levels of flört nem verbaal gedrag 13 Anna Valerievna Shmytkova -Ekaterina Safronova: Ways of Regional Flört nem verbaal gedrag 13 development, border territories of Ukraine and Russia are the single ethno-cultural regions with a common historical memory.

Prospects for Ukrainian border areas cooperation with the Russian regions will largely depend on how quickly barrier function of boundaries will be reduced.

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Creation of Euroregion develops additional opportunities of cross-border economic, social and cultural interaction, and allows to turn the difficult geopolitical and geoeconomic position of border region into unique advantage. References [1] Vardomsky, L.

P [2] Demoskop Weekly electronic resource. Mode of access: [3] Mezhevich, N. P [4] Naumenko, C. Vendina, O. Moscow [6] Rougemont, D.

Strasbourg [7] Russians of Ukraine abandon their history and language? Activities aiming at improving coordination and ensuring optimal allocation of funds from the EU budget should be continued. Due to the partnership principle and the existence of a unique management system, the Cohesion Policy makes it possible to spread the benefits of European integration and of the common market on all of its levels, from local to EU level.

The cohesion policy s implementation in Poland which accrued in the period to the EU countries amounted to Introduction Between and Poland efficiently absorbed the EU funds, which translated into a significant impact of the Cohesion Policy flört nem verbaal gedrag nem verbaal gedrag economic growth, investment activity and labour market. The EU funds allowed the GDP growth rate to accelerate, which means that the gap between Poland and highly developed EU economies will continue to narrow.

The Cohesion Policy also contributed to a marked increase in employment and a fall in unemployment Not only did it result from the volume of allocations, but also from the cumulative effects of implementing subsequent programmes, the emergence of new impact areas and delayed effects. It is expected that the impact of the Cohesion Policy in the period up to will be even stronger than in recent years.

The relatively flört nem verbaal gedrag GDP growth and in particular the fact that Poland managed to avoid recession in resulted to a considerable extent from the effective absorption of the EU funds. In the analysed period, the economic growth in Poland was mainly driven by domestic demand, which experienced significant shifts in the relation between consumption and capital formation caused by the high sensitivity of capital formation to changes in the economic situation.

Inafter a two-year decline, investment expenditures grew considerably 8.

The EU funds were particularly relevant for the rise in the volume of public-sector investment. In recent years, owing to this inflow, it was possible to maintain the total investment at the same level, despite a significant fall flört nem verbaal gedrag private investment.

After its temporary decline inthe level of deficit and general government debt was again on the increase between andand in Poland was put under the excessive deficit procedure. The difficulty in access to a number of basic health services, educational facilities, but nőkkel szemben súlyos to open labour markets is characteristic of less-developed areas with underdeveloped transport infrastructure, which in turn translates into higher unemployment.

As regards the average life expectancy in Despite poorer health compared with the EU average, the Polish society, the youth in particular, engages in gaining knowledge and skills. InPoland had the highest scholarization rate of people aged Socio-economic effects of Poland s EU membership.

Main conclusion on the 6th flört nem verbaal gedrag of membership.

flört nem verbaal gedrag

The share of persons attaining tertiary education among the population aged was systematically increasing by 4. Between and Poland observed the fastest growth of 4.

The increasing employment contributed to lowering the unemployment rate by 4. Despite the relatively high nominal increase in salaries between and of This ranks Flört nem verbaal gedrag sixth from bottom in the EU.

Low pay, long-term unemployment and disability are the main causes of privation, poverty and exclusion which touched The volume of tax burdens still remains relatively low compared with other Member States in revenues from taxes and social insurance contributions accounted for However, entrepreneurs perceive tax procedures as burdensome, long-lasting and complicated 5.

Between and the increase in the number of registered entities of the national economy was considerably slower than during the pre-accession period nearly 3.

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The ownership structure of businesses was clearly dominated Entities with foreign capital became an important part of the sector of enterprises 1. Between and Poland considerably improved its position in the main rankings of economic competitiveness, as well as the conditions for business activity in the Doing Business ranking by the World Bank it went up from the 75 th to the 62 nd place, in the ranking by the World Economic Forum from the 48 th to 41 st, and in the classification by the Institute flört nem verbaal gedrag Management Development from the 50 th to the 34 th.

In the Innovation Union Scoreboard Poland was ranked 23 rd in the EU and last in the group of the so-called moderate innovators.

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Ina slight but systematic increase was observed in internal 4 Ibidem. Fifth report on economic, social and territorial cohesion. November Brussels.

The effective use of the Internet is conditional upon broadband access. What needs to be stressed here is the nearly fourfold increase in the latter area from 3. Development trends and challenges for Poland after Medium and long-term forecasts indicate rather uncertain economic situation in the next years resulting from the situation in the external environment. As regards internal conditions, it is necessary to eliminate the risk posed by fiscal imbalance and to be consistent in creating new competitive advantages based on innovation and quality of products and services.

Consequently, it will be possible to counteract the perspectives of potential decline in the growth rate in the coming decades, caused by both running out of its simple reserves imitation of external solutions and price competition and demographic trends. The potential economic growth rate will by also determined by: the level and structure of investment expenditure the necessity of increasing the domestic savings rate and improving the attractiveness of the country and regions for potential investorsas well as the effectiveness of social policy instruments focused on increasing the professional activation of various population groups.

In the coming years, the measures aimed at development should also aim flört nem verbaal gedrag stimulating the demographic growth, increasing the employment rate, strengthening the social and intellectual capital, and bringing innovation. In the context of challenges related to climate change, it needs to be noted that the final energy consumption by Polish economy slightly lowered, which brings Poland closer to achieving the NSRF flört nem verbaal gedrag.

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The necessity to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions would mean not only enormous costs for the Polish economy expenditure on low-carbon technologies and loss of price competitivenessbut would also pose a potential threat for energy security of the country.

This issue may be addressed by integrating the domestic energy market with the European market, as well as by strengthening measures supporting the potential of energy generation based on renewable energy sources. The most important amendments to and reforms of public policies On 27 April the Council of Ministers adopted assumptions for a new development management system, aiming to improve the quality and results of development policy management in order to be able to tackle the challenges facing Poland and to fulfil the 7 European Commission Investing in Europe s future.

The model proposes several solutions grouped under three subsystems: programming, institutional and implementation.

Ordering and reducing the number of applicable strategies to 9 new, integrated development strategies implementing the medium- and long-term strategy for the country s development constitutes the key elements of this new model.

Work on developing a framework document setting out general tendencies and objectives, i.

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Work on long-term NDS is related to work on other development strategies in order to ensure the cohesion of proposed solutions both in the long-term and medium-term perspective.

On 25 September the Council of Ministers adopted a medium-term National Development Strategy NDSaiming at adjusting the previous medium-term strategy to the new macro-economic situation in Poland, Europe and the world, to the new strategic and spatial planning order, to the requirements of amended Act of 6 December on the principles of the development policy and to nők egy éjszakára prolonged programming period until In work on 9 integrated strategies was also carried out these strategies focused on the following areas: innovation and efficiency of economy, development of human capital, development of transport, energy security and environment, efficient administration, development of social capital, development of national security system of the Republic of Poland, sustainable development of rural areas, agriculture and fisheries and regional development.

Due to the adopted mode of work, drafted strategic documents are closely correlated and determine one another.

These relations are also in line with the regulations determining strategy hierarchy, according to which a mid-term national development strategy has to include provisions contained in the long-term national development strategy and has to be implemented by means of other strategies and development programmes.

The National Strategy of Regional Development, which was adopted in and which specifies the principles of development policy in Poland by presenting a new way of thinking about the concept of development and the public intervention mechanisms supporting it, constitutes one of the results of the regional policy's evolution.

Strengthening the role and status of regional policy as a policy of crucial importance for the development of Poland, which determines the direction of activities implemented under other policies, constitutes the most important change in that regard.

This change signals a departure from traditional redistribution of funds towards strengthening and utilising territorial potentials of all regions, thus turning into a joint policy of the government, local government authorities and other public bodies relevant for a given territory Institute for Structural Research Impact of the benefits derived by EU countries from the implementation of cohesion policy in Poland. Update Ministry of Regional Development.

Development of the National Urban Policy constitutes a key element of government activities in the field of increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of territoriallytargeted measures. Assumptions of the National Urban Policy developed by the Polish Ministry flört nem verbaal gedrag Regional Development establish basic principles and propositions concerning the flört nem verbaal gedrag related to the urban areas.

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They include a proposal for a definition of urban policy, identify challenges facing urban areas, introduce proposals of primary objectives, principles of urban policy and an outline of the system for coordination and implementation.

Draft Regulations directing the implementation of the Cohesion Policy after provide for significant strengthening of the urban dimension therefore it is important to specify the objectives and instruments of the National Urban Policy in advance in order to allow for their implementation with the help of EU s structural funds On the other hand, the National Spatial Development Conceptadopted by the government on flört nem verbaal gedrag Decemberconstitutes a systematised set of proposed measures concerning spatial development, prepared on the basis of analyses of relevant tendencies in the field of spatial development and aiming at establishing a spatial development system based on spatial order.

The Concept is the first document which links spatial planning with socio-economic planning, guiding changes related to spatial structures in a desired direction, and in this context it becomes an important element of the development management system.

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